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Recent urban studies show increasing interest in the segregation and changing geography of poor households across European and North American cities. However, these studies tend to rely on relatively crude categorizations of poor populations, despite potentially important variation within groups. This paper therefore seeks to deepen our understanding of the segregation by focusing on different types of low-income households, and their (changing) geography.

More specifically, this paper differentiates between unemployed, employed and self-employed households on a low income. To do so, this paper mainly draws on longitudinal register data from Statistics Netherlands, to document population changes in four Dutch metropolitan regions between 2005 and 2015. It shows and unravels that while there is an overarching suburbanization of poverty, substantially different spatial patterns apply to the different low-income groups. Segregation has decreased across the board at the regional level, but increased at the municipal level in Amsterdam and Utrecht. We argue changes in welfare-state structure and provisions have a differentiated effect on the housing position of these different low-income groups.

An adjusted and revised version of this paper is published in AreaFind it here.