Justus Uitermark is professor of Urban Geography at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences of the University of Amsterdam. Justus Uitermark studies cities from a comparative and historical perspective. He looks at how power relations are expressed in the built environment: which groups and interests prevail and which are pushed into the background?
As a relational sociologist, he focuses on networks: what sorts of networks do people form to resolve their collective problems and achieve their goals vis-à-vis others? With a background in human geography, he is particularly interested how different kinds of environments mediate collective action. Uitermark has a long-standing interest in the roles of cities as terrains of political struggle and more recently has been studying how social media platforms facilitate challenges against the status quo or breed conformity.
I’m currently a principal investigator for two major research projects: a VIDI project on amenities in rapidly growing cities, and an H2020 project on the computational analysis of political and cultural conflict. While their thematic foci and methods are different, both projects reflect my long-standing commitment to use relational sociology for understanding conflict and cooperation in historical and comparative perspective.
Between collectivization and enclosure: self-organization and state formation in rapidly growing cities (VIDI project)
Many cities in the global South are expanding rapidly, creating pressures on land and fueling conflicts over resources. The growing numbers of urbanites need access to basic provisions like clean water, sewerage, roads, public space, and electricity but governments are strapped for funds and often refuse to attend to the needs of deprived residents in informal settlements. As a result, cities expand much faster than state provisions. This project studies what happens under these conditions. How do residents of rapidly expanding cities succeed or fail to create and access amenities when they can neither count on the state nor on the market? How do residents cooperate and compete as they set up amenities? And how do their practices of self-organization challenge or support state institutions?
The project develops a sociological and geographical approach to examine how people connect or disconnect in the process of setting up and governing amenities. As edifices of collective action, amenities – from plots of bare land used as football pitches to elaborate educational systems – bind people together but also pull them apart: in setting up amenities, collectivities organize and define themselves while erecting barriers to outsiders. To study these dynamics, the project draws on work by Bram de Swaan and Elinor Ostrom, among others. Through literature reviews and case studies of Accra (Ghana) and Istanbul (Turkey), this project charts and explains the uneven development of amenities.
So far I’ve been working with Joris Tieleman, a PhD-candidate at Erasmus University, on Accra’s expansion.
The project is funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Reserach (NWO) through a VIDI grant and runs from 2018 until 2023.
ODYCCEUS: examining cultural and political conflict
This H2020 project brings together scholars from the exact sciences, social sciences, and humanities to develop theories, models, and methods to better understand political and cultural conflict. The project is directed by Eckehard Olbrich of the Max Planck Institute for mathematics in Leipzig and includes partners from Belgium, France, Sweden, Italy, and Germany; see the project website for more information. Within the scope of ODYCCEUS, I’m supervising two PhD-projects together with Petter Tornberg:
Also within the framework of ODYCCEUS, and continuing work of the Cultural Conflict 2.0 project, I’m working with John Boy to study how social media are reshaping social relations within cities. In opposition to commentators who view social media as platforms for opinion exchange, we are developing the hypothesis that they are, first and foremost, stages for the expression and affirmation of status. Using both computational and interpretative methods of inquiry, we seek to illuminate how social media serve to consolidate or contest social hierarchies. Some of our work came out in PLoS ONE, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, and the Nordic Journal of Religion and Society.